Configuration Ansible

Ce document propose d’examiner les principales options de configuration de Ansible sur le noeud de contrôle. Son architecture son agent laisse le soin à chacun de configurer finement et personnellement le comportement par défaut de la solution.

Si vous préparez un examen de certification, ce document poursuit l’objectif suivant :

  • 1. Comprendre les composants de base d’Ansible
    • Fichiers de configuration
  • 13. Utiliser la documentation fournie pour rechercher des informations spécifiques sur les modules et commandes Ansible

Le comportement d’Ansible peut être influencé de différentes manières :

  1. en configurant des variables d’environnement
  2. en passant directement les paramètres sur la ligne de commande ansible ou ansible-playbook
  3. en définissant un fichier de configuration ansible.cfg

1. Commande ansible-config

La commande ansible-config list donne la liste des variables de configuration chargée dans le système de contrôle. Voyez-vous même :

ansible-config list

2. Fichier de configuration ansible.cfg

On peut changer ces variables de configuration en renseignant un fichier de configuration. Ansible cherchera dans l’ordre (le premier trouvé sera utilisé et les autres seront ignorés)1 :

  1. ANSIBLE_CONFIG (Si la variable d’environnement est valorisée)
  2. ./ansible.cfg (dans le dossier courant, le répertoire de travail)
  3. ~/.ansible.cfg (à la racine du dossier utilisateur comme fichier caché)
  4. /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg (dans le dossier de configuration du logiciel)

Le dépot GitHub d’Ansible offre un exemple de fichier de configuration commenté. Il est directement disponible sur cet URL :

curl -s | less

On y trouvera une dizaine de sections :

  • [defaults]
  • [inventory]
  • [privilege_escalation]
  • [paramiko_connection]
  • [ssh_connection]
  • [persistent_connection]
  • [accelerate]
  • [selinux]
  • [colors]
  • [diff]

3. Section [defaults]

La section [defaults] est la plus intéressante :

Valeurs habituelles


# some basic default values...

#inventory      = /etc/ansible/hosts
#library        = /usr/share/my_modules/
#module_utils   = /usr/share/my_module_utils/
#remote_tmp     = ~/.ansible/tmp
#local_tmp      = ~/.ansible/tmp
#plugin_filters_cfg = /etc/ansible/plugin_filters.yml
#forks          = 5
#poll_interval  = 15
#sudo_user      = root
#ask_sudo_pass = True
#ask_pass      = True
#transport      = smart
#remote_port    = 22
#module_lang    = C
#module_set_locale = False

On retiendra les variables :

  • forks
  • remote_port

Récupération des “facts”

# plays will gather facts by default, which contain information about
# the remote system.
# smart - gather by default, but don't regather if already gathered
# implicit - gather by default, turn off with gather_facts: False
# explicit - do not gather by default, must say gather_facts: True
#gathering = implicit

# This only affects the gathering done by a play's gather_facts directive,
# by default gathering retrieves all facts subsets
# all - gather all subsets
# network - gather min and network facts
# hardware - gather hardware facts (longest facts to retrieve)
# virtual - gather min and virtual facts
# facter - import facts from facter
# ohai - import facts from ohai
# You can combine them using comma (ex: network,virtual)
# You can negate them using ! (ex: !hardware,!facter,!ohai)
# A minimal set of facts is always gathered.
#gather_subset = all

# some hardware related facts are collected
# with a maximum timeout of 10 seconds. This
# option lets you increase or decrease that
# timeout to something more suitable for the
# environment.
# gather_timeout = 10

# Ansible facts are available inside the ansible_facts.* dictionary
# namespace. This setting maintains the behaviour which was the default prior
# to 2.5, duplicating these variables into the main namespace, each with a
# prefix of 'ansible_'.
# This variable is set to True by default for backwards compatibility. It
# will be changed to a default of 'False' in a future release.
# ansible_facts.
# inject_facts_as_vars = True

Vérification des clés SSH

# uncomment this to disable SSH key host checking
#host_key_checking = False

4. Callback plugins

# change the default callback, you can only have one 'stdout' type  enabled at a time.
#stdout_callback = skippy
## Ansible ships with some plugins that require whitelisting,
## this is done to avoid running all of a type by default.
## These setting lists those that you want enabled for your system.
## Custom plugins should not need this unless plugin author specifies it.

# enable callback plugins, they can output to stdout but cannot be 'stdout' type.
#callback_whitelist = timer, mail

Handlers manquants

# Controls if a missing handler for a notification event is an error or a warning
#error_on_missing_handler = True

Timeout SSH

# SSH timeout
#timeout = 10

Utilisateur cible par défaut

# default user to use for playbooks if user is not specified
# (/usr/bin/ansible will use current user as default)
#remote_user = root


# logging is off by default unless this path is defined
# if so defined, consider logrotate
#log_path = /var/log/ansible.log

Extensions Jinja2

# list any Jinja2 extensions to enable here:
#jinja2_extensions =,jinja2.ext.i18n

Fichier de mot de passe ansible-vault

# If set, configures the path to the Vault password file as an alternative to
# specifying --vault-password-file on the command line.
#vault_password_file = /path/to/vault_password_file


# by default, ansible-playbook will display "Skipping [host]" if it determines a task
# should not be run on a host.  Set this to "False" if you don't want to see these "Skipping"
# messages. NOTE: the task header will still be shown regardless of whether or not the
# task is skipped.
#display_skipped_hosts = True

# by default, if a task in a playbook does not include a name: field then
# ansible-playbook will construct a header that includes the task's action but
# not the task's args.  This is a security feature because ansible cannot know
# if the *module* considers an argument to be no_log at the time that the
# header is printed.  If your environment doesn't have a problem securing
# stdout from ansible-playbook (or you have manually specified no_log in your
# playbook on all of the tasks where you have secret information) then you can
# safely set this to True to get more informative messages.
#display_args_to_stdout = False

# by default (as of 1.3), Ansible will raise errors when attempting to dereference
# Jinja2 variables that are not set in templates or action lines. Uncomment this line
# to revert the behavior to pre-1.3.
#error_on_undefined_vars = False

# by default (as of 1.6), Ansible may display warnings based on the configuration of the
# system running ansible itself. This may include warnings about 3rd party packages or
# other conditions that should be resolved if possible.
# to disable these warnings, set the following value to False:
#system_warnings = True

# by default (as of 1.4), Ansible may display deprecation warnings for language
# features that should no longer be used and will be removed in future versions.
# to disable these warnings, set the following value to False:
#deprecation_warnings = True

# (as of 1.8), Ansible can optionally warn when usage of the shell and
# command module appear to be simplified by using a default Ansible module
# instead.  These warnings can be silenced by adjusting the following
# setting or adding warn=yes or warn=no to the end of the command line
# parameter string.  This will for example suggest using the git module
# instead of shelling out to the git command.
# command_warnings = False

Types et emplacements des plugins

# set plugin path directories here, separate with colons
#action_plugins     = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/action
#cache_plugins      = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/cache
#callback_plugins   = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/callback
#connection_plugins = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/connection
#lookup_plugins     = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/lookup
#inventory_plugins  = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/inventory
#vars_plugins       = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/vars
#filter_plugins     = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/filter
#test_plugins       = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/test
#terminal_plugins   = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/terminal
#strategy_plugins   = /usr/share/ansible/plugins/strategy


# by default, ansible will use the 'linear' strategy but you may want to try
# another one
#strategy = free


# by default callbacks are not loaded for /bin/ansible, enable this if you
# want, for example, a notification or logging callback to also apply to
# /bin/ansible runs
#bin_ansible_callbacks = False


# don't like cows?  that's unfortunate.
# set to 1 if you don't want cowsay support or export ANSIBLE_NOCOWS=1
#nocows = 1

# set which cowsay stencil you'd like to use by default. When set to 'random',
# a random stencil will be selected for each task. The selection will be filtered
# against the `cow_whitelist` option below.
#cow_selection = default
#cow_selection = random

# when using the 'random' option for cowsay, stencils will be restricted to this list.
# it should be formatted as a comma-separated list with no spaces between names.
# NOTE: line continuations here are for formatting purposes only, as the INI parser
#       in python does not support them.
#              hellokitty,kitty,luke-koala,meow,milk,moofasa,moose,ren,sheep,small,stegosaurus,\
#              stimpy,supermilker,three-eyes,turkey,turtle,tux,udder,vader-koala,vader,www


# don't like colors either?
# set to 1 if you don't want colors, or export ANSIBLE_NOCOLOR=1
#nocolor = 1

Mise en cache des “facts”

# if set to a persistent type (not 'memory', for example 'redis') fact values
# from previous runs in Ansible will be stored.  This may be useful when
# wanting to use, for example, IP information from one group of servers
# without having to talk to them in the same playbook run to get their
# current IP information.
#fact_caching = memory

#This option tells Ansible where to cache facts. The value is plugin dependent.
#For the jsonfile plugin, it should be a path to a local directory.
#For the redis plugin, the value is a host:port:database triplet: fact_caching_connection = localhost:6379:0


Fichier Retry

# retry files
# When a playbook fails by default a .retry file will be created in ~/
# You can disable this feature by setting retry_files_enabled to False
# and you can change the location of the files by setting retry_files_save_path

#retry_files_enabled = False
#retry_files_save_path = ~/.ansible-retry

Squash action

# squash actions
# Ansible can optimise actions that call modules with list parameters
# when looping. Instead of calling the module once per with_ item, the
# module is called once with all items at once. Currently this only works
# under limited circumstances, and only with parameters named 'name'.
#squash_actions = apk,apt,dnf,homebrew,pacman,pkgng,yum,zypper

Journalisation des tâches

# prevents logging of task data, off by default
#no_log = False

# prevents logging of tasks, but only on the targets, data is still logged on the master/controller
#no_target_syslog = False


# controls whether Ansible will raise an error or warning if a task has no
# choice but to create world readable temporary files to execute a module on
# the remote machine.  This option is False by default for security.  Users may
# turn this on to have behaviour more like Ansible prior to 2.1.x.  See
# for more secure ways to fix this than enabling this option.
#allow_world_readable_tmpfiles = False

# controls the compression level of variables sent to
# worker processes. At the default of 0, no compression
# is used. This value must be an integer from 0 to 9.
#var_compression_level = 9

# controls what compression method is used for new-style ansible modules when
# they are sent to the remote system.  The compression types depend on having
# support compiled into both the controller's python and the client's python.
# The names should match with the python Zipfile compression types:
# * ZIP_STORED (no compression. available everywhere)
# * ZIP_DEFLATED (uses zlib, the default)
# These values may be set per host via the ansible_module_compression inventory
# variable
#module_compression = 'ZIP_DEFLATED'

# This controls the cutoff point (in bytes) on --diff for files
# set to 0 for unlimited (RAM may suffer!).
#max_diff_size = 1048576

# This controls how ansible handles multiple --tags and --skip-tags arguments
# on the CLI.  If this is True then multiple arguments are merged together.  If
# it is False, then the last specified argument is used and the others are ignored.
# This option will be removed in 2.8.
#merge_multiple_cli_flags = True

# Controls showing custom stats at the end, off by default
#show_custom_stats = True

# Controls which files to ignore when using a directory as inventory with
# possibly multiple sources (both static and dynamic)
#inventory_ignore_extensions = ~, .orig, .bak, .ini, .cfg, .retry, .pyc, .pyo

# This family of modules use an alternative execution path optimized for network appliances
# only update this setting if you know how this works, otherwise it can break module execution
#network_group_modules=eos, nxos, ios, iosxr, junos, vyos

# When enabled, this option allows lookups (via variables like {{lookup('foo')}} or when used as
# a loop with `with_foo`) to return data that is not marked "unsafe". This means the data may contain
# jinja2 templating language which will be run through the templating engine.
#allow_unsafe_lookups = False

# set default errors for all plays
#any_errors_fatal = False

4. Plugins de connexion

Connection Plugins

Les plug-ins de connexion permettent à Ansible de se connecter aux hôtes cibles afin d’exécuter des tâches sur ceux-ci. Ansible est livré avec de nombreux plugins de connexion, mais un seul peut être utilisé par hôte à la fois. Les plus utilisés sont les types de connexion Paramiko SSH, ssh natif (appelé simplement ssh) et local.

On peut utiliser ansible-doc -t connection -l pour voir la liste des plugins disponibles. ansible-doc -t <nom du plug-in> permet d’afficher une documentation détaillée et des exemples.

  • buildah Interact with an existing buildah container
  • chroot Interact with local chroot
  • docker Run tasks in docker containers
  • funcd Use funcd to connect to target
  • httpapi Use httpapi to run command on network appliances
  • iocage Run tasks in iocage jails
  • jail Run tasks in jails
  • kubectl Execute tasks in pods running on Kubernetes.
  • libvirt_lxc Run tasks in lxc containers via libvirt
  • local execute on controller
  • lxc Run tasks in lxc containers via lxc python library
  • lxd Run tasks in lxc containers via lxc CLI
  • netconf Provides a persistent connection using the netconf protocol
  • network_cli Use network_cli to run command on network appliances
  • oc Execute tasks in pods running on OpenShift.
  • paramiko_ssh Run tasks via python ssh (paramiko)
  • persistent Use a persistent unix socket for connection
  • psrp Run tasks over Microsoft PowerShell Remoting Protocol
  • saltstack Allow ansible to piggyback on salt minions
  • ssh connect via ssh client binary
  • winrm Run tasks over Microsoft’s WinRM
  • zone Run tasks in a zone instance

5. Automation système Linux

Voici un exemple de fichier de configuration utilisé dans le cadre de l’automation de serveurs Linux :

cat << EOF >> ansible.cfg
inventory = ./inventory.ini
host_key_checking = False
private_key_file = /root/.ssh/id_rsa
callback_whitelist = profile_tasks
forks = 20
#strategy = free
gathering = explicit
become = True
[callback_profile_tasks ]
task_output_limit = 100

On remarquera les paramètres suivants du fichier ansible.cfg :

  • inventory: l’emplacement de l’inventaire utilisé
  • private_key_file: l’emplacement de la clé publique pour les connexions SSH (ici le paramètre est commenté)